Tolerant of salt spray, American holly can be planted to restore damaged coastal areas. Flowers appear in early May. The Holly plant does grow pretty slow, but can eventually attain a height of around 30-50 feet in a compact pyramid shape. form a strategic partnership called N.C. Holly is often found in Beech and Oak woodlands, but can also, although rarely, form pure holly forests. The spiny, dull green leaves are accented with clusters of red berries which persist throughout the fall and winter. The American Holly is easily grown in average, consistently moist, acidic, well-drained soils in full sun to part shade. Some people prune the lower branches from older trees to expose the handsome, smooth, gray bark. American Holly is dioecious - trees have either male or female flowers. Male and female flowers appear on separate trees and trees of both sexes must be located in the same neighborhood to ensure production of berries on the female plants. This bark becomes covered in wartlike growths as the trees age. English holly plants are the quintessential hollies, short broadleaf evergreen trees with dense, dark-green glossy leaves. It is a deer-resistant tree. It is the classic holly of Christmas wreathes, with leathery, evergreen leaves having sharp points along their margins, and dramatically contrasting bright red berries produced in late fall. New York. American holly is one of the easiest trees to recognize. SUPPLY In the previous version of this publication (1953), the wood supply was reported to be at least 5 million board feet. The American holly tree (Ilex opaca) is an evergreen species renowned for its leaves and berries, which often wind up in Christmas decorations. This fungus primarily affects the root system and reduces plant vigor. The Holly tree needs some moisture at the roots and in very dry locations its growth is usually stunted. Spines are evenly spaced and are long and sharp. The ones at left are staminate (male) flowers. The American Holly tree has been popular since the beginning of American history, having served Native Americans with wood for many different applications and berries that were used for buttons and barter. ---Parts Used---Leaves, berries, bark. If you are interested in growing English hollies or just want a few more English holly facts, click here. The former star of "The Affair" and "Fringe" talks from home about his new series, "Little Fires Everywhere. Harvesting is mainly restricted to short logs and bolts. While it prefers normal moisture, the tree has some flood tolerance and drought resistance. You will simply take your cuttings and dip them in a compound used for rooting.There are various strengths to the rooting compound and your garden store can let you know which one you need for growing holly. Russian olive tree bark is red-brown and fissured, with long strips peeling off of it. Its prickly leaves are a dark green color. The wood is very pale, tough, close-grained, takes a good polish, and is used for whip-handles, engraving blocks and also cabinet work. Blooms are produced on the current season's growth beginning in April in the southern growth range and June in the north. Twospotted Spider Mites on Landscape Plants, Soft Scale Identification and Management on Ornamental Plants, Botrytis Fruit Rot / Gray Mold on Strawberry, NC Cooperative Extension and NHC Arboretum. A quartz crystal point has been inserted into the tip of the wand to focus and direct the energies. The handle has the Holly bark still in tact for a nice grip. American holly is a broad-leaved evergreen tree reaching 40 to 50 feet high, densely pyramidal in youth becoming more open and symmetrically conical with age. One common holly disease is … Trees of Alabama and the Southeast Male flowers. No new data are available. It is often used in place of English holly, especially in Christmas decorations. American Holly is a fairly common understory tree, American Holly is easy to identify, with prickly evergreen leaves, smooth bark, and red fruits (on female trees) that last through the winter. Attributes This tree: Features leathery leaves that are 2–4" long, maintain their green color year-round, and are sharply tipped on the margins. Aboveground symptoms may include stunting of terminal growth, shortening of internodes, and interveinal chlorosis. cc-by-4.0. The bark is smooth and is often ash-colored or black. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); All photographs and text ©2013 by Will Cook unless otherwise noted. Being able to identify the types of disease that may cause the tree to become damaged or suffer a premature death will help a holly tree owner apply a fix that will save the tree and prolong its life. Our only similar species is Chinese Holly (Ilex cornuta), which has distinctively shaped leaves and is smaller in stature. For optimum growth avoid poorly drained soils. Small, dull green-white, solitary flowers mature in late spring. However, the berries from a good sized holly tree will feed many birds during the winter. It will not do well in locations not protected from cold winter winds and winter sun. In natural settings, they often grow 30-60 feet tall with some individuals reaching almost 100 feet. American holly has smooth bark when it is young. The tree has alternate leaves with spiny toothed and sometimes smooth margins. They can reach a height from 50 feet with a 2 foot diameter. The spiny, dull green leaves are accented with clusters of red berries which persist throughout the fall and winter. This species is easily identified because it is the only native U.S. h… Individual male flowers are about ¼" across, consisting of a short green calyx with 4 lobes, 4 greenish white or yellowish white petals, and 4 stamens. Black Root Rot: Black root rot is caused by the fungus Thielaviopsis basicola. The gray bark is very smooth and usually covered with many species of lichens. American Holly is dioecious, forming male (staminate) and female (pistillate) flowers on separate trees. The Alabama used the bark for an eye wash, as did the Choctaw. cc-by-4.0. Only female trees produce those festive red berries, which ripen to red during the colder months of autumn and winter. While it can grow in partial shade, you will achieve denser growth if you give it full sun. How to Treat Holly Tree Diseases. Light gray-white and smooth bark, may be splotched or warty. its stormy-worthy nature. Ilex opaca, commonly called American holly, is an upright, pyramidal, evergreen tree that slowly matures to 15-30' in cultivation, but may reach 50' tall in the wild. When milled, the sapwood is white and the heartwood is an ivory white with a bluish cast or streaks. Although some are less toxic than others, it is best to keep your dog away from any variety. ‘Slim Jim’ American Holly1 Edward F. Gilman and Dennis G. Watson2 INTRODUCTION A popular landscape plant since the beginning of American history, this broad-leafed evergreen has served a variety of uses through the years (Fig. The American holly tree (Ilex opaca) is an evergreen species renowned for its leaves and berries, which often wind up in Christmas decorations. Elm bark is the bark of the elm tree. American holly is a slow grower and typically matures to a height of 30 feet (but may be taller in the wild). It is used primarily as a decoration. These trees are commonly used in native plantings, as shrub borders, mass planting, and for fruit displays during the fall and winter season. Holly is usually cut during the winter and kiln dried shortly thereafter to preserve the white color of the wood. Lots of American hollies can … Older plums have gray bark with deep vertical ridges and peeling strips. The dense branches of this holly grow nearly horizontal in a American Holly is an evergreen tree that may grow 40 to 60 feet tall. It was said to be a favorite of George Washington, and more than a dozen hollies he planted are still evident today. Its best growth in the wild usually occurs in rich bottomlands and swamp margins. trusted. Young American plums have reddish gray bark with small horizontal ridges. Reply. This Wand measures approx. Both sexes must be present to produce fruit (dioecious). your own Pins on Pinterest The holly tree is an important food source for birds and mammals that … It has a density of 0.58 to 0.64. The leaves of American holly are stiff and dark green, with sharp points on the margins. It was the Cherokee that … It provides essential ecosystem functions, including providing winter shelter for songbirds. Holly has both male and female trees, with females producing ornamental red berries that are a favorite food for birds. It doesn’t make a good plant for small yards, but can be a beautiful plant when given space to grow. Chapel Hill, NC 5/3/03. Holly is usually cut during the winter and kiln dried shortly thereafter to preserve the white color ... Should I remove the bark, ie skin it? Holly wood also makes good firewood and burns with a strong heat. Also called by their scientific name “ilex opaca,” American Holly is native to south central and eastern United States and further west to southeastern Missouri and eastern Texas. Fire Risk: This plant has a high flammability rating and should not be planted within the defensible space of your home. Grain/Texture: Grain is interlocked and irregular. Avoid windy sites. Introduction: American holly is a broad-leaf evergreen with a beautiful shape, but with a variety of insect and disease problems.The tree offers clusters of red berries that persist throughout fall and winter. New York . 1. Ilex opaca: American Holly 4 Pests Holly leaf miner larvae mines out the leaf middle leaving yellow or brown trails. How to Measure the Age of a Holly Tree. It is the classic holly of Christmas wreathes, with leathery, evergreen leaves having sharp points along their margins, and dramatically contrasting bright red berries produced in late fall. While holly bushes are lovely, they are susceptible to diseases that affect their health and appearance. It is probably not appropriate for me to name any of them here, but a search for “American holly lumber” should return fruitful results. Diseases Tar spot may occasionally cause small yellow spots on the leaves in early summer. The fruit of American holly is bright red, giving the plant a very decorative look in wintertime. [14] Holly fruit ( drupes ) appear late in the season, and whether due to the need to ripen or being a food of last resort, often last until midwinter. It is commonly used to make walking sticks. A pyramid-shaped evergreen tree with spines on its foliage, American holly blooms in May or June (depending on where you live). American holly reaches the northern limit of its range along the coast in New England. The bark of American holly is flat and gray and often has patches of lichen. Female specimens produce a bright red or orange fruit which matures in the fall and persists into the winter. Holly branches are still used to decorate homes and make wreaths at Christmas. The Catawba used an infusion from the leaves for sores and for sore muscles. It was said to be a favorite of George Washington, and more than a dozen Hollies planted by him are still in evidence today. American holly (Ilex opaca), the state tree of Delaware, is a fantastic tree, with brilliant red berries and dark green leaves that are popular decorations during the Christmas season. The bark is smooth and is often ash-colored or black. American Holly use was documented by the great ethnobotanist Daniel Moerman by several Native American Indian tribes for example. American holly is a beautifully shaped tree, with a symmetrical, dense, wide pyramidal form. Vance Co., NC 4/26/04. Virginia Tech Dendrology, Recommended Tree, Shrub, and Woody Vine Identification Guides. If planted in the right conditions and decently cared for some hollies can live up to 100 years or longer. American Holly is a fairly common understory tree, American Holly is easy to identify, with prickly evergreen leaves, smooth bark, and red fruits (on female trees) that last through the winter. Propagating holly should be done while the bush is dormant. Male and female flowers appear on separate trees and trees of both sexes must be located in the same neighborhood to ensure production of berries on the female plants. Infloreescence is staminate a cyme, and pistillate single. Illicin, possibly saponic glycosides, and triterpenoids. My name is Holly and I am an American. Comments The male and female holly flowers grow on separate male or female plants. Read our Commitment to Diversity | Read our Privacy Statement. I'm trying to em-bark on the next stage of my life, and the first step is branching out with my relationships. NC State Fact Sheet It is native to the eastern and central U.S., most frequently found in moist woods, forest bottomlands and swamp peripheries plus some coastal dunes (e.g., Cape Cod down the Atlantic Coast) from Massachusetts to West Virginia to Ohio to southeastern Missouri south to Texas and Florida. Holly bark is light gray or white. Medium to fine uniform texture with moderate natural luster. Berries. Preparations. I am a hard-core dicot with my roots in eastern and south-central United States, from coastal Massachusetts south to central Florida, and west to southeastern Missouri and eastern Texas. The American holly was named Delaware’s official tree in 1939 when the state was the leading exporter of holly Christmas wreaths. This bark becomes covered in wartlike growths as the trees age. Holly – more specifically the European holly, Ilex aquifolium – is commonly referenced at Christmas time, and is often referred to by the name Christ's thorn. Not all hollies can be used interchangeably. Holly wood is the whitest of all woods, and is heavy, hard and fine-grained. Growing holly cuttings is not at all difficult. This tree seems to occur either as solitary individuals or thickly with no in-between. Botanical Source.—This tree rises from 20 to 40 feet in height, having leaves which are alternate, coriaceous, evergreen, smooth, and shining, flat, oval, acute at the end, and the wavy margins armed with strong, scattered, spiny teeth. Honeybees are attracted to its tiny white flowers. American holly normally grows to heights of 15 to 30 feet tall, but records indicate mature heights of up to 100 feet. It is a larval host plant for Henry's Elfin (Callophrys henrici) larvae which appear from February to May and have one flight. Male trees produce axillary clusters of 3-12 male flowers on peduncles about 1" long. Ilex opaca, commonly called American holly, is an upright, pyramidal, evergreen tree that slowly matures to 15-30' in cultivation, but may reach 50' tall in the wild. Look at the tree bark’s color, texture and pattern. The leaves are typically yellow in alkaline soils and have a dusty, dirty look to them. It can also be dyed and used as a substitute for ebony. NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to Persist on tree from September through February. Select plants with a low flammability rating for the sites nearest your home. Of the 29 species of North American hollies, American holly is the only tree-sized holly that keeps its leaves through the winter. It is also widely known as the basic raw material for Christmas wreaths. General Characteristics: The holly tree has spiny evergreen leaves and red berries on the female trees. Translation by Augustus Lucas Hillhouse. Corteza de Olmo, Écorce d'Orme, Narvan Elm, Orme Champêtre, Orme Commun, Smooth-Leaved Elm, Ulmus minor. Its thick, leathery, alternate, simple, deep green leaves (2-4" long) have spiny marginal teeth. Very rarely, American Holly flowers are 5-parted instead of 4-parted. ---Habitat--- The Holly is a native of most of the central and southern parts of Europe. The Koasati made an infusion from the bark that could be rubbed into the skin for itching. 1). Being situated in too much shade will cause the plant foliage to lose density. Adult Henry's Elfin butterflies feed on flower nectar. American holly has strong wood and an upright habit, which make the tree impervious to snow and ice. American holly Aquifoliaceae Ilex opaca Aiton symbol: ILOP Leaf: Alternate, simple, evergreen, elliptical, 2 to 4 inches long, spiny toothed margin, thickened and leathery, shiny dark green above, much paler below. Once you have these canes, you can cut them into pieces about six inches (15 cm.) American holly Legal Status. They are presented in alphabetical order. Flower: Species is dioecious; dull green-white, male flowers on 3 to 7 flowered cymes, female flowers are solitary with a pleasant odor, appearing in late spring. Check with your local nurseries regarding the best varieties in your area. American holly Legal Status. Holly cuttings are made from canes of new growth that have been removed from the holly bush. COMMON NAME: American holly. Soft white wood with a very feminine and protective energy. Vitamins, Minerals, & More. Person Co., NC 4/1/06. Scientific Name: Ilex opaca Holly bark is light gray or white. "Watch the video How to Grow Holly Cuttings. The berries are packed along the branches and they turn red by October, and stay on the bush well into the winter, and certainly through the holidays, when you can cut branches for wreaths, table-decoration or vases. Its fruits are eaten by songbirds, wild turkeys, quail, white-tailed deer, squirrels and other small mammals. Many species of holly tree (Ilex spp.) American holly has smooth bark when it is young. The American holly, called the evergreen or Christmas holly (Ilex opaca Aiton) was named the state tree of Delaware on 1 May 1939. The bark is gray-white in color and may be splotched or warty. Do you see any lichens which are a combination of fungus and algae growing together? Discover (and save!) Leaves are alternate, simple, oblong to elliptic, coriaceous, and have an apical spine. Females produce bright berries. cc-by-4.0. 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