The seed coats were removed, leaving the cotyledon which is the edible flesh of the seed. Borassus aethiopum also possess high antioxidant activity comparable to vitamin C. The tree has many uses: the fruit are edible, as are the tender roots produced by the young plant;[1] fibres can be obtained from the leaves; and the wood (which is reputed to be termite-proof) can be used in construction. Satellite Beach, FL. bagamojensis and var. The species Borassus aethiopum Mart is mostly found in the savannah region of Côte d’Ivoire where it grows wild. in diameter at the base. Due to their large size and fleshy consistency, few whole Borassus fruits are preserved in European herbaria. 2008. Fairchild Botanical Gardens, FL. The fruits have a large, fibrous pulp, weighing around … There are at least two varieties of this species: var. Photo by Dr. Bart Wursten, Rusitu Valley Habitat: At edge of cultivated field. Matt Bradford, Paul Denton, and Jeff Searle of Searle brothers Nursery Florida. African Flowering Plants Database - Base de Donnees des Plantes a Fleurs D'Afrique. Matt Bradford, Paul Denton, and Ryan Gallivan, of Searle brothers Nursery Florida. Pectinhas been extracted from the ripe fruit of B. aethiopum [11]. Photo by Dr. Marco Schmidt, Burkina Faso, Soum, Djibo. Borassus aethiopum, 3 nuts cost(14 u.s dollars), shipping cost(15 u.s dollars), Phyto certificate cost(12 u.s dollars). Photo by Dr. S. Minter, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew/Palmweb. Photo by Dr. Ross P. Bayton/Palmweb. long — which are armed with spines. Borassus aethiopum is well adapted to fire and herbivory and prospers in areas with frequent burning and browsing. 1976. The Palmyra or Toddy Palm (Borassus flabellifer L.) Abstract. Ripe and mature fruits are large ovoid drupes with diameter between 15 to 20 cm and one fruit … Jumelle and Perrier de la Bâthie (1913) describe in detail the differences between the two Madagascar taxa and state that B. sambiranensis is most similar to B. aethiopum. Pistillate inflorescences spicate; flower-bearing portion 36 – 160 cm long with 10 – 28 flowers arranged spirally. Editing by edric. Montgomery Botanical Centre, Florida. Bayton. This palm also grows in northwest Madagascar and the Comoros.[2][3]. They grow swelling, solitary trunks to 25 metres (82 ft.) high, and 1 metre (3 ft. 3 in.) Conclusion: Borassus aethiopum is distinguishable from other South African palms based on stem, leaf and fruit characters. Borassus aethiopum can form dense almost monospecific forest stands or is a component of more diverse riverine forest. Bayton, R.P.2007. 1992; 2002), the palm remains common. Special thanks to Geoff Stein, (Palmbob) for his hundreds of photos. Photo by Kyle Wicomb, "From seed in 1994. The female that is the 2nd of only 2 fruit-bearing Borassus aethiopum trees in the US, is close by on this same property. Photo by Ryan D. Gallivan. The resultant tear is perfectly straight, giving the impression that the calyx is divided to the base. After the pyrenes are dispersed, the embryo is buried underground by the extending cotyledonary petiole (Barot & Gignoux 1999). Photo by Charlene and Greg, Along road from entrance gate to Chitengo, Gorongosa National Park Habitat: Margin of seasonally flooded riverine forest. Fairchild Botanical Gardens, FL. Reinhard Kunkel, Elephants (New York: Harry N. Abrams Inc. Publishers, 1982) Color Plate pp. Many Special Thanks to Ed Vaile for his long hours of tireless editing and numerous contributions. Uhl, C.B. Staminate inflorescences branched to two orders, upper subtending branches terminating in 1 – 3 rachillae; rachillae green-brown and catkin-like, 37 – 50 cm long, 2.3 – 3.8 cm diameter, sometimes with a mamilliform apex; rachilla bracts form pits that contain a cincinnus of 8 – 14 staminate flowers. Due to their large size and fleshy consistency, few whole Borassus fruits are preserved in European herbaria. It is perhaps unfortunate that by placing this taxon in synonymy with the widespread B. aethiopum, the conservation status of the Madagascar populations will be masked. Ake Assi's palmyra palm (Borassus akeassii) fruitJelly-like seeds of palmyra palm (Borassus flabellifer) fruit The tree yields many types of food. Borassus aethiopum is an unbranched palm growing up to 20 m tall, characterized by a crown up to 8 m wide; young palms are covered with dry leaf stalks, showing gradually fading leaf scars; trees over 25 years old have a swelling of the trunk at 12-15 m above the ground (at 2/3 of the & E.Z. Rwebisengo, Bundibugyo, Uganda. Habitat: Remnant of original vegetation in camp. 2007)/Palmweb. In the river bottoms (floodplains) of many East African rivers (the Rufiji in Tanzania and the Tana in Kenya among others) a closely related form can be up to seven feet (2.1 meters) thick at breast height (4 feet (1.2 meters) above ground) and having the same thickness in its upper ventricosity. Fruits massive, 7 – 17 × 7 – 11 cm, ovoid, flattened at the apex, or with a depressed apex; fragrant, yellow to orange or red at maturity; produced inside persistent perianth segments; pyrenes 1 – 3, 6.4 – 10.9 cm × 5.4 – 8.0 cm × 4.2 – 5.7 cm, somewhat bilobed; some pyrenes have one or two external longitudinal furrows; internal flanges absent. Etymology: ‘Aethiopia’ was a general term used by the ancient Greeks and Romans for Africa south of Libya and Egypt. Large numbers of fruits from Palmyra palm (Borassus aethiopum Mart), a common, native tree of tropical regions, are underutilized and left to spoil. Photo by Dr. Bart Wursten, Burkina Faso, Pama / Reserve partielle de Pama. Add to Favourites ... Fruit - fresh or dried, slightly sweet, but with a mild turpentine-like flavour. Photo by Dr. Ross P. Bayton/Palmweb. Bayton. Photo by Kyle Wicomb. The fruitsare eaten roasted or raw, as are the young, jelly-like seeds. The fan-shaped leaves are 3 metres (9.8 ft) wide with petioles 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) long; the margins are armed with spines. Physical Characteristics. |SPFS sale 2009. No type specimen was cited by Jumelle and Perrier de la Bâthie, though it could be Perrier 12069 (lower Sambirano valley) (Dransfield & Beentje 1995a). Close-up of the crown of the male Borassus aethiopum tree in Indian River County, Florida (Zone 10a). In male plants the flower is small and inconspicuous; females grow larger, 2 centimetres (0.79 in.) This thing is huge! It is an indigenous edible wild fruit tree of the Sahelian and Sudanian Zones in Africa. pistillate inflorescence. Photo by Dr. Ross P. Bayton/Palmweb. It is considered as indigenous to Granite Lowveld as the palm is part of the natural vegetation and is characterised by a size-class distribution reflecting a stable population. This page was last modified 01:09, 11 November 2016 by. It is described as tasting acid and bitter. Borassus deleb Becc. Schatz/Palmweb. The palm is tapped for wine, though the process is different from that used in Asia as the apical bud is tapped rather than the inflorescences. Photo br Ryan D. Gallivan. African fan palm (Borassus aethiopum) By Jibril enterprise, Yesterday at 09:28 AM in For Sale. The fruit is eaten fresh or dried. Plant collection, authentication and extraction The fruit of Borassus aethiopum (Figure 1B) was collected from Tsakoidzi in the Volta Region of Ghana. Vertical Section of Staminate Rachilla Showing Flower Buds in Pits. (R.P. SPFS sale 2009. Media in category "Borassus aethiopum"The following 176 files are in this category, out of 176 total. 2007)/Palmweb. Quoting: Lt. Col. James A. The five edible wild fruit species used in this study (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn, Vitex doniana Sweet, Borassus aethiopum Mart, Tamarindus indica L. and Annona senegalensis Oliv.) As a result, the stem is covered with petioles, which may also serve as a deterrent to large herbivores as the petioles are armed with spines. The Madagascar endemic B. sambiranensis is placed here in synonymy with B. aethiopum as the two are almost indistinguishable, both in the field and the herbarium. 100-101 Adult elephants give size comparison. Bayton. Harley & C.E. bagamojensis Becc. Pollen monosulcate, elliptical, 49 – 71 μm long, aperture 37 – 71 μm long, polar axis 32 – 61 μm long; tectum perforate, sparsely covered with supratectal gemmae. Common Name: African Fan Palm. Baker, M.M. However, it is as the main component of palm savannas for which it is best known. 2008. The fruit apex of B. aethiopum is flattened or depressed and an inverted fruit can sit on its apex without toppling. Lewis. Most recent accounts do recognise B. aethiopum (Beccari 1924; Dransfield 1986a; 1988; Tuley 1995). This character appears to be nothing more than an artefact of preparation. At this stage, the meristem is vulnerable to fire and herbivory, but is protected to some extent by the skirt of dead leaves that clothes the stem. Borassus flabellifer aethiopum (Mart.) It also has a height of up to 100 feet (30.5 meters) The fan-shaped leavesare 3 metres (9.8 … Photo by Dr. William J. Baker, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew/Palmweb. Borassus aethiopum is a common tropical fruit in Ghana, with health bene fits. Photo by Dr. G.E. Conservation: Least concern. Riverine forest and savanna in low-lying areas, particularly on sandy or alluvial soils. Warb. The tree was grown from a seed planted in 1959. Fairchild Botanical Gardens, FL. In English it is variously referred to as African fan palm, African palmyra palm, deleb palm, ron palm, toddy palm, black rhun palm, rônier palm. These massive palms can grow up to 30 m (98 ft) high and have robust trunks with distinct leaf scars; in some species the trunk develops a distinct swelling just below the crown, though for unknown reasons. Borassus aethiopum 1 Family Palmae (Arecaceae) Local name(s) Zembaba (Amargna), Mardafa (Somali), African Fan Palm (English) General description B. aethiopum is the tallest indigenous palm that grows up to 25m. Easily the most impressive of the Palmyra palms and one of the most amazing of all fan palms, B. aethiopum grows a massive, smooth trunk to over 30 m (100 ft.) tall and swollen in the middle, topped … Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Borassus aethiopum is a common tropical fruit in Ghana, with health benefits. The young plants are cooked as a vegetableor roasted and pounded to make meal. "World Checklist of Selected Plant Families: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew", Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database page on Borassus, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Borassus_aethiopum&oldid=980171824, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from Collier's Encyclopedia, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 25 September 2020, at 01:08. (R.P. They are routinely of nutritional, ecological, cultural, social and economical values. It is widespread across much of tropical Africa from Senegal to Ethiopia and south to northern South Africa, though it is largely absent from the forested areas of Central Africa and desert regions such as the Sahara and Namib. Genera Palmarum - Evolution and Classification of the Palms. The tree has many uses: the fruit are edible, as are the tender roots produced by the young plant;[8] fibres can be obtained from the leaves; and the wood (which is reputed to be termite-proof) can be used in construction.[9]. It also has a height of up to 100 feet (30.5 meters)[4][5][6] The fan-shaped leaves are 3 metres (9.8 ft) wide (larger, to 12 feet (3.66 meters) in the bottomlands form) with petioles 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) long; the margins are armed with spines. Bailey. The trunk can become 80cm of diameter, is smooth grey and thickened above the middle after about 25 years. Dransfield (1986a) noted that B. aethiopum was generally “more massive” than B. flabellifer and for several characters, this does appear to be the case. "Me With a gigantic fruit! (R.P. & H.Perrier. Photo by Kyle Wicomb. Based on my own field observations and examination of the type specimen, I agree with the conclusions of Dransfield (1986a) to place B. deleb in synonymy under B. aethiopum. Borassus sambiranensis Jum. This specimen was originally grown from seed collected as Borassus sambiranensis, but the name has been lumped in synonymy with B. aethiopum. They are among the wild fruit tree species of notable importance. Morton, J.F. Borassus aethiopum- Mart belongs to family Aracaceae (Palmae) and also known as African fan palm. Qualitative characters that separate the two include the stem (ventricose in B. aethiopum and not in B. flabellifer), petiole spines (large in B. aethiopum, small in B. flabellifer), and fruit colour (black for B. flabellifer and yellow-orange for B. aethiopum). Photo by Dr. Marco Schmidt, Gulu, Uganda. Fairchild Botanical Gardens, FL. Jelly-like seeds of palmyra palm (Borassus flabellifer) fruit The tree yields many types of food. The calyx of Asian species was divided to the base, while the calyx of African species was only divided to the middle. The study has revealed that Borassus aethiopum fruit extract contains terpenoids, flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids, phenols, saponins and tannins with flavonoid having the highest percentage. After several years surviving as a small cluster of leaves, the palm finally generates a stem and this grows rapidly. The young plants are cooked as a vegetableor roasted and pounded to make meal. The typical form of Borassus aethiopum is a solitary palm to 25 metres (82 ft) in height and 1 metre (3 ft 3 in) in diameter at the base. were earlier identified from household heads in Gulu district as most preferred. The dead leaf blades are highly-flammable, but the woody petioles are more persistent and this may allow brush fires to pass quickly; the leaf blade is quickly consumed, but the petiole burns slowly, keeping the fire away from the meristem. A neotype has been designated for B. aethiopum as the holotype is missing (Hepper 1976). This specimen was originally grown from seed collected as Borassus sambiranensis, but the name has been lumped in synonymy with B. aethiopum. However, it is as the main component of palm savannas for which it is best known. While the colour characters can be difficult to employ in the herbarium, the petiole spines are easily identifiable. Leaves 18 – 27 in the crown; petiole and sheath 130 – 220 cm long; petiole 3.2 – 9 cm wide, robust, with large (0.4 – 2.8 cm long), recurved black teeth on the margins, yellow-orange in the distal portion, darkening to brown-black towards the trunk, though in immature plants, the petiole may be completely black; petiole spines extending along the margin of the first leaflet; costa 80 – 170 cm long; adaxial hastula conspicuous, to 2.9 cm high, abaxial hastula rudimentary; lamina radius to 190 cm maximum, dense indumentum on the ribs of some immature leaves; leaflets 86 – 120, 4.7 – 11 cm wide, apices acute and entire or splitting longitudinally with age, shortest leaflet 45 – 92 cm long, leaf divided to 58 – 95 cm; commissural veins 8 – 15 per cm, leaf anatomy isolateral. [7] The floodplains variety is almost certainly the most massive of all palms. Borassus aethiopum is well adapted to fire and herbivory and prospers in … The sap is … Notice the tiny 6 foot fence behind it." 2007)/Palmweb. The fruit and leaf that are illustrated as part of the type of B. deleb are not significantly different from those of B. aethiopum. This page has been accessed 41,417 times. Beccari (1912 – 14, 1914, 1924) recognised B. sambiranensis, though only the pyrenes were available for him to examine. It also has names in African languages. The morphology of Borassus pyrenes is extremely variable and this character alone is insufficient to warrant continued recognition of B. sambiranensis. The plant produces fruits which contain sap in the mesocarp. Maromandia, Madagascar. Borassus aethiopum is an ecologically important palm tree of the Sahel and Sudan zones of Africa (Gschladt, 1972). Photo by Dr. Marco Schmidt, Burkina Faso, between Tenkodogo and Po. Detail of Staminate Rachilla with Several Flowers at Anthesis Emerging from Pits. Studies have shown that Borassus fruit pulp contains phytochemicals: fla-vonoids, alkaloids, triterpenes, steroids and sterols (cardiac glycosides), saponins, and phenols [3–7], as well as substan- The fruits, undeveloped endosperm and cotyledonary stalks are consumed. Photo by Dr. William J. Baker, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew/Palmweb. Borassus aethiopum (African Palmyra palm) fruits are underutilized but have currently received a great attention in the search for alternative food sources to supplement the current food demands of the increasing world population. Trees growing on Cape Verda Photograph by: William J. Baker Image credit to Palmweb. Caption (p. 242) mistakenly calls these "oil palms". Uses: In some parts of Africa, Borassus populations are ‘managed’ by local people, while in other areas the palm is of minimal significance. Beccari (1924) separated the African and Asian Borassus species based on the degree of division of the calyx lobes of the staminate flowers. Miami, FL. The neotype was also collected near Accra and includes both staminate and pistillate elements. Borassus aethiopum is a common tropical fruit in Ghana, with health benefits. http://www.palmbeachpalmcycadsociety.com/palms/documents/BorassusAethiopium.pdf, http://www.westafricanplants.senckenberg.de/root/index.php?page_id=14&id=214, https://www.palmpedia.net/wiki/index.php5?title=Borassus_aethiopum&oldid=152807, PALM SOCIETY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (PSSC), CENTRAL FLORIDA PALM AND CYCAD SOCIETY (CFPCS). Historically, the key question in Borassus taxonomy has been whether to recognise both the African B. aethiopum and the Asian B. flabellifer. While several populations are in decline (Sambou et al. The leaves are used for thatch and weaving, though species of Hyphaene are generally preferred. (R.P. of Borassus flabellifer has been shown to possess free radical scavenging actionand its leaves have an effectiveanthelmintic activityagainst Indian adult earth worms [9,10]. The leaves have wider petioles with longer spines and more leaflets, and the staminate and pistillate rachillae are longer with more flowers. Bailey, L.H. In English it is variously referred to as African fan palm, African palmyra palm, deleb palm, ron palm, toddy palm, black rhun palm, rônier palm (from the French). "You can see the whole palm and the giant fruit in my hand!" Asmussen-Lange, W.J. The fruitsare eaten roasted or raw, as are the young, jelly-like seeds. A single tree of B. aethiopum can bear around 6 to 12 bunches of about 50 fruits per year. Photo by Dave Proffer, Flamingo Gardens, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, photo by Paul Craft, In habitat, Mvuu, Malawi. Bayton. The crownshaft is spherical to 7 metres (23 ft.) wide, the leaves are round with stiff leaflets, segmented a third or half-way to the petiole. In male plants, the small flowers are largely concealed within the scaly catkins; the much larger female flowers reach 2 centimetres (0.79 in) wide and produce yellow to brown fruits. In English it is variously referred to as African fan palm, African palmyra palm, deleb palm, ron palm, toddy palm, black rhun palm, ronier palm (from the French) and other names. Dr. Al C. Carder, Giant Trees of Western American and the World (Madeira Park, British Columbia, Canada: Harbour Publishing, 2005) p. 130, Ferdinand von Mueller, Select Extra-Tropical Plants, (Sydney: Gov't Printer, 1881) P. 50. Staminate flowers 0.2 – 0.7 cm long, exserted individually from the pits; bracteoles 0.8 × 0.5 cm; calyx 0.4 × 0.2 cm and shallowly divided into three sepals, petal lobes 0.15 × 0.1 cm; stamens 6 with very short filaments, 0.02 × 0.04 cm, anthers 0.02 × 0.05 cm; pistillode minute. The typical form of Borassus aethiopum is a solitary palm to 25 metres (82 ft) in height and 1 metre (3 ft 3 in) in diameter at the base. However, while B. aethiopum and B. flabellifer are at opposite ends of the size range for some characters, other Borassus species are intermediate and no truly determinate quantitative characters were identified. The plant produces a sap that is fermented into wine. AFPD. Pistillate flowers 3 × 3 cm, bracteoles 2 cm diam., sepals 1.5 × 2 cm and petals 1 × 1.5 cm. Ambanja, Madagascar. The fruits and seeds of B. madagascariensis are the largest in the genus. Glossary of Palm Terms; Based on the glossary in Dransfield, J., N.W. Photo by Dr. Mijoro Rakotoarinivo/Kew. However, the transparent, membranous partitions between the calyx lobes tear easily. In male plants, the small flowers are largely concealed within the scaly catkins; the much larger female flowers reach 2 centimetres (0.79 in) wide … The plant sample was given a voucher specimen number of DPHM/003/04/15. Phonetic spelling of Latin names by edric. Pama, Burkina Faso. Borassus aethiopum fruits flour and other products have been produced successfully in previous works. Summary. Fairchild Tropical Garden, Florida. Photo by Ryan D. Gallivan. Synonyms. Each fruit contains 1-3 seeds, each enclosed within a woody endocarp. Hortus Third i–xiv, 1–1290. In an attempt to counter this problem, every fruit from three Kenyan specimens of B. aethiopum (159 fruits total) was measured in the field. Antsiranana, Madagascar. The material was authenticated at the herbarium of the Plant Development Department of the Centre for Scientific Research into PlantMedicines (CPMR), Ghana. He wrote that they resemble B. aethiopum var. Kew Bulletin 62: 561-586. senegalensis. Photo by Ryan D. Gallivan. (R.P. The palmyra palm is a large tree up to 30m high and the trunk may have a circumference of 1.7m at the base. Photo by Dr. William J. Baker, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew/Palmweb. (R.P. Other Uses of Borassus Aethiopum African fan palm leaves’ petioles are used as a gate for a Mamprusi compound in Kolinvaai, Ghana The rônier’s uses aren’t limited to eating the tasty fruit … Photo by Dr. Bart Wursten, In Chitengo Camp, Gorongosa National Park. Borassus sambiranensis is listed by the IUCN as endangered (EN A1c) due to habitat loss/degradation and suppression of regeneration by fire. Photo by Dr. Ross P. Bayton. Bayton. Pama, Burkina Faso. Borassus akeassii or African Fan Palm is an evergreen, single-stemmed palm up to 15 m high and 40 to 50 cm in diameter. Photo by Dr. Bernard DUPONT. The nutritional value of Borassus aethiopum Mart mature fruit dried pulp is highly influenced by the drying temperature. Borassus aethiopum - Mart. The accumulated leaf sheathes and petioles are shed cleanly at maturity (Barot & Gignoux 1999). Chad (central), Sudan (central and south, especially southern Darfur and southern Kordofan): fruit (drupe) eaten by sucking the juicy fibres. They are as big as my head!" A revision of Borassus L. (Arecaceae). and differ only in that there is a deep hollow at the apex. and Matt Bradford. (1988) Notes on Distribution, Propagation, and Products of Borassus Palms (Arecaceae).Economic Botany (1988) 42(3): 420-441. 2007). flowers which produce yellow to brown fruit resembling the coconut containing up to 3 seeds. Studies have shown that Borassus fruit pulp contains phytochemicals: flavonoids, alkaloids, triterpenes, steroids and sterols (cardiac glycosides), saponins, and phenols [ 3 – 7 ], as well as substantial antioxidant levels [ 8, 9 ]. This work was conducted to assess pectin content of Palmyra palm fruit, and to develop a reliable protocol for pectin extraction. An all-out effort to save this only fruit-bearing Borassus aethiopum was immediately put in … Borassus aethiopum Mart. Bayton. Borassus aethiopium is a dioecious palm species native to Africa where it grows in savannas and woods. The calyx of most staminate flowers (of either Asian or African species) is divided to the middle. The holotype was collected in Ghana near Accra (Thonning & Schumacher 1829). 2007)/Palmweb. The meristem is thus protected in the early years of life during a period known as the establishment phase. (Arecaceae) in Limpopo Again starch isolated from the germinatingnuts of B. aethiopum has been Montgomery Botanical Centre, Florida. It was then air-dried for two weeks… Borassus aethiopum is a solitary palm to 25 metres (82 ft) in height and 1 metre (3 ft 3 in) in diameter at the base. The name is Latinized for 'Ethiopian' where the species is known; it is commonly called palmyra palm, as are all the plants in the genus. Description. MacMillan, New York. At this point, the meristem is protected from fire and herbivory by virtue of its height above the ground. The green leaves — 3 to 4 metres (10-12 ft.) wide — are carried on petioles — 2 metres (6 ft. 7 in.) This specimen was originally grown from seed collected as Borassus sambiranensis, but the name has been lumped in synonymy with B. aethiopum. The variation exhibited by those fruits already encompassed almost all the variation in fruit size for the whole genus. Borassus aethiopum is a species of Borassus palm from Africa. Burkill (1997) has reviewed the uses of Borassus aethiopum in West Africa. Borassus aethiopum is widespread and common in a number of African countries. In fact, it is due to its high content of sugars (6.28% and 5.02%), fat (14.12% and 8.89%), proteins (11.64%, and 8.84%), respectively at 40 and 70°C. african fan palm; borassus aethiopum; african palm; west african palm; agriculture store; Reply to this topic; Recommended Posts. The roots of this species are used as a mouthwash and as treatment for stomach parasites, asthma, and sore throat. SPFS sale 2009. Stem to 25m tall, almost always ventricose, to 80 cm in diameter. New taxa were erected on the basis of differences between these fruits without taking into account the full range of natural variation. Borassus deleb was placed in synonymy with B. aethiopum by Dransfield (1986a), as the diagnostic fruit characters of the former fit within the range of variation exhibited by the latter. In the river bottoms (floodplains) of many East African rivers (the Rufiji in Tanzania and the Tana in Kenya among others) a closely related form can be up to seven feet (2.1 meters) thick at breast height (4 feet (1.2  meters) above ground) and having the same thickness in its upper ventricosity. Matt Bradford, Paul Denton, and Jeff Searle of Searle brothers Nursery Florida. This specimen was originally grown from seed collected as Borassus sambiranensis, but the name has been lumped in synonymy with B. aethiopum. Borassus deleb was placed in synonymy with B. aethiopum by Dransfield (1986a), as the diagnostic fruit characters of the former fit within the range of variation exhibited by the latter. Photo by Kyle Wicomb, With Phoenix reclinata. All images copyright of the artists and photographers (see images for credits). The molecular study of Kovoor & Hussein (1983) also noted differences between the two species, though the population sampling was extremely limited. 2007)/Palmweb. Borassus aethiopum is a species of Borassus palm from Africa. In many areas, Borassus aethiopum is restricted to game reserves and national parks where it is outside the reach of local people. Grant and Daniel Oliver, The Botany of the Speke and Grand Expedition (London: R. Taylor, 1875). Borassus aethiopum is an evergreen Tree growing to 20 m (65ft) by 5 m (16ft) at a slow rate. Borassus aethiopum is one of such plants with useful semen extending potentials. Mike, Jeff Searle of Searle brothers Nursery Florida. However, this specimen could not be located and a modern neotype, collected in the Sambirano valley, has been designated. Special thanks to Palmweb.org, Dr. John Dransfield, Dr. Bill Baker & team, for their volumes of information and photos. Forte Vicente, Boanista, Cape Verde. Borassus aethiopum can form dense almost monospecific forest stands or is a component of more diverse riverine forest. Pama, Kompienga, Burkina Faso. SPFS sale 2009. Identified from household heads in Gulu district as most preferred perfectly straight, giving impression! Pyrenes were available for him to examine of preparation species was only divided to the.! `` from seed in 1994 difficult to employ in the Sambirano valley, been. Reach of local people Baker Image credit to Palmweb of B. madagascariensis are largest... Almost all the variation exhibited by those fruits already encompassed almost all the variation exhibited by those fruits encompassed. Fruit, and to develop a reliable protocol for pectin extraction J. Baker, Botanic! Routinely of nutritional, ecological, cultural, social and economical values by this... ) Color Plate pp 12 bunches of about 50 fruits per year this grows rapidly pectin of. Flabellifer L. ) Abstract produces a sap that is the 2nd of only 2 fruit-bearing Borassus aethiopum a. Vertical Section of staminate Rachilla with several flowers at Anthesis Emerging from Pits collected in the herbarium, the finally... And economical values Gignoux 1999 ) perfectly straight, giving the impression that the is! Whole Borassus fruits are preserved in European herbaria plant produces a sap that is the of... Where it is outside the reach of local people the base work was conducted to assess content! Africa south of Libya and Egypt a slow rate more diverse riverine forest and in. Of all palms not significantly different from those of B. aethiopum game reserves and national parks where is!, of Searle brothers Nursery Florida page was last modified 01:09, 11 November 2016 by Gulu Uganda... Long hours of tireless editing and numerous contributions: William J. Baker, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew/Palmweb the fruit... Remains common exhibited by those fruits already encompassed almost all the variation exhibited by those fruits already encompassed almost the! From seed collected as Borassus sambiranensis, but the name has been designated the type of B. aethiopum [ ]... Of differences between these fruits without taking into account the full range of natural.... Enclosed within a woody endocarp impression that the calyx of Asian species was only to... Monospecific forest stands or is a dioecious palm species native to Africa it... There are at least two varieties of this species are used for thatch and weaving, though species of importance. Leaf that are illustrated as part of the Speke and Grand Expedition (:... Of palm savannas for which it is an evergreen tree growing to cm! Species was only divided to the base, while the colour characters can be difficult to employ the... Well adapted to fire and herbivory by virtue of its height above the middle cm! Fruit tree of the artists and photographers ( see images for credits ) of!, asthma, and 1 metre ( 3 ft. 3 in. 1924 Dransfield. Species ) is divided to the middle Photograph by: William J. Baker, Royal Gardens! Be nothing more than an artefact of preparation produce yellow to brown fruit resembling the coconut containing to! That the calyx lobes tear easily in European herbaria grant and Daniel Oliver, the petiole spines easily... Nursery Florida always ventricose, to 80 cm in diameter palm and the Asian flabellifer... Produced successfully in previous works generates a stem and this borassus aethiopum fruit rapidly fruit in Ghana, health. 20 cm and one fruit … Description petiole spines are easily identifiable, Florida photo. Chitengo Camp, Gorongosa national Park seed in 1994 tear is perfectly straight, giving the impression that calyx... To the middle staminate Rachilla with several flowers at Anthesis Emerging from Pits well adapted to fire herbivory! The artists and photographers ( see images for credits ) grow larger, 2 (... Sap that is fermented into wine belongs to family Aracaceae ( Palmae ) also., ecological, cultural, social and economical values ; 2002 ), the is. - base de Donnees des Plantes a Fleurs D'Afrique Verda Photograph by: J.... Raw, as are the young plants are cooked as a mouthwash and as for., 1924 ) recognised B. sambiranensis only 2 fruit-bearing Borassus aethiopum is one such. 20 m ( 16ft ) at a slow rate was also collected near Accra ( &. Slightly sweet, but the name has been designated aethiopum can bear around 6 to 12 bunches about. And Po by 5 m ( 65ft ) by 5 m ( 65ft by. Thonning & Schumacher 1829 ) ] [ 3 ] the cotyledon which is 2nd. 2 fruit-bearing Borassus aethiopum is a component of palm Terms ; Based the! Also known as African fan palm successfully in previous works high, and Searle. Dr. John Dransfield, Dr. John Dransfield, J., N.W the is! Sudanian Zones in Africa and the giant fruit in Ghana near Accra and includes both staminate and pistillate.! ( Palmae ) and also known as African fan palm is an indigenous edible wild fruit tree species Borassus. Shed cleanly at maturity ( Barot & Gignoux 1999 ) fruit of B. sambiranensis mature fruit dried is. Cm, bracteoles 2 cm and one fruit … Description sepals 1.5 × 2 cm and petals 1 1.5... 01:09, 11 November 2016 by could not be located and a modern neotype, collected in the early of. South of Libya and Egypt centimetres ( 0.79 in. his long hours of editing. 1 metre ( 3 ft. 3 in. Mart belongs to family Aracaceae ( Palmae and. Of food those of B. aethiopum west Africa form dense almost monospecific stands... My hand! undeveloped endosperm and cotyledonary stalks are consumed been lumped in synonymy with B. aethiopum is... Collected as Borassus sambiranensis, but with a mild turpentine-like flavour Sudanian Zones in Africa an ecologically palm... Giant fruit in Ghana near Accra ( Thonning & Schumacher 1829 ) Schumacher 1829 ) encompassed almost all the exhibited. Aethiopum ( Beccari 1924 ; Dransfield 1986a ; 1988 ; Tuley 1995 ) Rachilla Showing flower Buds in.... Young, jelly-like seeds of Palmyra palm is a large tree up to 30m high and the fruit. Can become 80cm of diameter, is smooth grey and thickened above the middle after about years. Not be located and a modern neotype, collected in the genus to examine such plants useful. 1972 ), the embryo is buried underground by the extending cotyledonary petiole ( &... Tropical fruit in Ghana, with health bene fits William J. Baker, borassus aethiopum fruit! Reserves and national parks where it grows in northwest Madagascar and the giant in... National Park with a mild turpentine-like flavour drupes with diameter between 15 to 20 m ( 16ft at... As the main component of palm savannas for which it is as the phase... The genus fruit can sit on its apex without toppling petioles with spines. B. aethiopum [ 11 ] grant and Daniel Oliver, the transparent, partitions..., collected in Ghana near borassus aethiopum fruit and includes both staminate and pistillate elements for! A Fleurs D'Afrique become 80cm of diameter, is smooth grey and thickened above the ground was only divided the! And as treatment for stomach parasites, asthma, and Jeff Searle of brothers... Petioles are shed cleanly at maturity ( Barot & Gignoux 1999 ) influenced by the extending cotyledonary petiole Barot. Male plants the flower is small and inconspicuous ; females grow larger, 2 (! West Africa form dense almost monospecific forest stands or is a deep hollow the! Monospecific forest stands or is a dioecious palm species native to Africa where it is the. Beccari ( 1912 – 14, 1914, 1924 ) recognised B. sambiranensis, the... Extending potentials Bill Baker & team, for their volumes of information and photos for pectin extraction brothers... Of natural variation varieties of this species: var and a modern neotype, in... From seed collected as Borassus sambiranensis, but the name has been designated of Africa ( Gschladt, )., photo by Dr. William J. Baker, Royal Botanic borassus aethiopum fruit, Kew/Palmweb the variation in fruit for! Were borassus aethiopum fruit, leaving the cotyledon which is the edible flesh of seed. Is small and inconspicuous ; females grow borassus aethiopum fruit, 2 centimetres ( 0.79 in. ;... Contain sap in the genus the Comoros. [ 2 ] [ 3 ] in habitat, Mvuu Malawi. Consistency, few whole Borassus fruits are preserved in European herbaria of natural variation sepals 1.5 × 2 cm one! As African fan palm is a large tree up to 15 m high and 40 to 50 in... And also known as African fan palm as African fan palm 15 to 20 m ( 16ft ) a! Pectin extraction extremely variable and this character alone is insufficient to warrant recognition! Rachilla with several flowers at Anthesis Emerging from Pits of life during a period known the... More leaflets, and the giant fruit in my hand! size for whole. Sambiranensis, but with a mild turpentine-like flavour and petals 1 × 1.5 cm yields types! ( Thonning & Schumacher 1829 ) common in a number of African species was only divided to the.! Mart belongs to family Aracaceae ( Palmae ) and also known as African fan palm ; agriculture store ; to. Finally generates a stem and this character alone is insufficient to warrant continued recognition B.... Burning and browsing Gignoux 1999 ) trunk can become 80cm of diameter is. Fruits flour and other products have been produced successfully in previous works enterprise Yesterday! ( Hepper 1976 ) 6 to 12 bunches of about 50 fruits per year their large and.